An analysis of the failures of affirmative action

The second person was just starting out in the field and seemed to lack the ambition that was visible in his opponent. Well, if the story took place beforethe answer would be obvious. However, with the somewhat recent adoption of the social policy known as affirmative action, the answer becomes unclear. After the United States Congress passed the Civil Rights Act init became apparent that certain business traditions, such as seniority status and aptitude tests, prevented total equality in employment.

An analysis of the failures of affirmative action

In the Beginning Inaffirmative action became an inflammatory public issue.

The Failures of Affirmative Action | Novelguide

But what did this mandate amount to? The Executive Order assigned to the Secretary of Labor the job of specifying rules of implementation. Through these contractor commitments, the Department could indirectly pressure recalcitrant labor unions, who supplied the employees at job sites. Its predecessor, Order No.

At first, university administrators and faculty found the rules of Order No.

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The number of racial and ethnic minorities receiving PhDs each year and thus eligible for faculty jobs was tiny. Any mandate to increase their representation on campus would require more diligent searches by universities, to be sure, but searches fated nevertheless largely to mirror past results.

The Revised Order, on the other hand, effected a change that punctured any campus complacency: Some among the professoriate exploded in a fury of opposition to the new rules, while others responded with an equally vehement defense of them.

For several decades Anglo-American philosophy had treated moral and political questions obliquely. First, John Rawls published in A Theory of Justice, an elaborate, elegant, and inspiring defense of a normative theory of justice Rawls Properly understood, affirmative action did not require or even permit the use of gender or racial preferences.

An analysis of the failures of affirmative action

Affirmative action, if it did not impose preferences outright, at least countenanced them. Among the yea-sayers, opinion divided between those who said preferences were morally permissible and those who said they were not.

The Controversy Engaged The essays by Thomson and Nagel defended the use of preferences but on different grounds. Thomson endorsed job preferences for women and African-Americans as a form of redress for their past exclusion from the academy and the workplace. Preferential policies, in her view, worked a kind of justice.

Nagel, by contrast, argued that preferences might work a kind of social good, and without doing violence to justice.

Institutions could for one or another good reason properly depart from standard meritocratic selection criteria because the whole system of tying economic reward to earned credentials was itself indefensible.

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Justice and desert lay at the heart of subsequent arguments. Preferential hiring seen as redress looks perverse, they contended, since it benefits individuals African-Americans and women possessing good educational credentials least likely harmed by past wrongs while it burdens individuals younger white male applicants least likely to be responsible for past wrongs Simon—19; Sher; Sher81—82; and Goldman—1.

What rights were at issue?Oct 14,  · A version of this news analysis appears in print on October 14, , on Page SR4 of the New York edition with the headline: Rethinking Affirmative Action. Order Reprints | Today's Paper.

The Failures of Affirmative Action, Free Study Guides and book notes including comprehensive chapter analysis, complete summary analysis, author biography information, character profiles, theme analysis, metaphor analysis, and top ten quotes on classic literature.

The Failures of Affirmative Action, Free Study Guides and book notes including comprehensive chapter analysis, complete summary analysis, author biography information, character profiles, theme analysis, metaphor analysis, and top ten quotes on classic literature.

Racism, discrimination and Affirmative Action are concepts that go hand in hand. This sample essay examines if these terms are just related or interchangeable.5/5(1). Racism, discrimination and Affirmative Action are concepts that go hand in hand. This sample essay examines if these terms are just related or interchangeable.5/5(1).

The Failure of Affirmative Action. July 4, By cjhanna “A Systematic Analysis of Affirmative Action in Law Schools” claim that a disproportionate amount of black law students that.

Affirmative Action (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)