He said that the world crisis was from humanity losing the ethical idea of civilization, "the sum total of all progress made by man in every sphere of action and from every point of view in so far as the progress helps towards the spiritual perfecting of individuals as the progress of all progress". The abstract noun "civilization", meaning "civilized condition", came in the s, again from French. The first known use in French is inby Victor Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeauand the first use in English is attributed to Adam Fergusonwho in his Essay on the History of Civil Society wrote, "Not only the individual advances from infancy to manhood, but the species itself from rudeness to civilisation".
Obelisk of AksumEthiopia There were a number of regional empires during this period. The kingdom of the Medes helped to destroy the Assyrian Empire in tandem with the nomadic Scythians and the Babylonians.
Several empires began in modern-day Greece. From the 4th to 6th centuries, northern India was ruled by the Gupta Empire. In southern India, three prominent Dravidian kingdoms emerged: The ensuing stability contributed to heralding in the golden age of Hindu culture in the 4th and 5th centuries.
The empire would continue to grow, controlling much of the land from England to Mesopotamiareaching its greatest extent under the emperor Trajan died CE. In the 3rd century CE, the empire split into western and eastern regions, with usually separate emperors.
The eastern empire, now known as the Byzantine Empirewith its capital at Constantinoplewould continue for another thousand years, until Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in Han China developed advanced cartography, shipbuilding, and navigation.
The Chinese invented blast furnacesand created finely tuned copper instruments. As with other empires during the Classical Period, Han China advanced significantly in the areas of government, education, mathematics, astronomy, technology, and many others.
It minted its own currency and carved enormous monolithic steles such as the Obelisk of Axum to mark their emperors' graves.
Successful regional empires were also established in the Americasarising from cultures established as early as BCE. Maya civilization arose as the Olmec mother culture gradually declined.
The later empire of the Aztecs was built on neighbouring cultures and was influenced by conquered peoples such as the Toltecs. Some areas experienced slow but steady technological advances, with important developments such as the stirrup and moldboard plough arriving every few centuries.
There were, however, in some regions, periods of rapid technological progress.
Most important, perhaps, was the Mediterranean area during the Hellenistic periodwhen hundreds of technologies were invented. Declines, falls, and resurgence The ancient empires faced common problems associated with maintaining huge armies and supporting a central bureaucracy.
These costs fell most heavily on the peasantrywhile land-owning magnates increasingly evaded centralized control and its costs. Barbarian pressure on the frontiers hastened internal dissolution.
China 's Han dynasty fell into civil war in CE, beginning the Three Kingdoms period, while its Roman counterpart became increasingly decentralized and divided about the same time in what is known as the Crisis of the Third Century. The great empires of Eurasia were all located on temperate and subtropical coastal plains.
From the Central Asian steppes, horse-based nomads, mainly Mongols and Turks, dominated a large part of the continent. The development of the stirrup and the breeding of horses strong enough to carry a fully armed archer made the nomads a constant threat to the more settled civilizations. The Pantheon in RomeItalynow a Catholic church The gradual break-up of the Roman Empirespanning several centuries after the 2nd century CE, coincided with the spread of Christianity outward from the Middle East.
After the fall of the Eastern Han Dynasty  and the demise of the Three Kingdoms, nomadic tribes from the north began to invade in the 4th century, eventually conquering areas of northern China and setting up many small kingdoms.
Post-classical history University of TimbuktuMali The Post-classical Era, though deriving its name from the Eurocentric era of " Classical antiquity ", refers to a broader geographic sweep. The era is commonly dated from the 5th-century fall of the Western Roman Empirewhich fragmented into many separate kingdoms, some of which would later be confederated under the Holy Roman Empire.
The Post-classical period also encompasses the Early Muslim conqueststhe subsequent Islamic Golden Ageand the commencement and expansion of the Arab slave tradefollowed by the Mongol invasions in the Middle East and Central Asia,[ citation needed ] and the founding around of the Ottoman Empire.
On the southeast coast of Africa, Arabic ports were established where goldspicesand other commodities were traded.
This allowed Africa to join the Southeast Asia trading system, bringing it contact with Asia; this, along with Muslim culture, resulted in the Swahili culture.
Middle Eastern trade routes along the Indian Ocean, and the Silk Road through the Gobi Desert, provided limited economic and cultural contact between Asian and European civilizations.
During the same period, civilizations in the Americassuch as the IncaMayaand Aztecsreached their zenith; all would be compromised by, then conquered after, contact with European colonists.Free Civilization papers, essays, and research papers.
Ancient Civilization: The Epic of Gilgamesh - To study history, you first have to examine the way that the people lived and what factors could have caused them to live that way.
In the Egyptian civilization, the Egyptians lives were depend on agriculture and in order to get a good crop, they depends on the annual flooding of the Nile. At first, the Egyptian priests often do the study on the frequency of the annual flooding of the Nile.
Ancient Egypt was known as the‘Cradle of Civilization’. Egyptian civilization is a gift of the Nile River that flows from the northern part. KEY IDEA: DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION: The development of agriculture enabled the rise of the first civilizations, located primarily along river valleys; these complex societies were influenced by geographic conditions, and shared a number of defining political, social, and economic characteristics.
Video: Mesopotamia: The First Civilization In this lesson, we explore the beginning of one of the oldest civilizations in the world, Mesopotamia. We specifically discuss the factors that.
This one-page guide includes a plot summary and brief analysis of How the Irish Saved Civilization by Thomas Cahill. How the Irish Saved Civilization is the first book in Cahill’s Hinges of History series.