It was never my intention to get so heavily involved in the issue of trans woman-inclusion in lesbian and women-only spaces. At the time, I was voraciously reading everything I could get my hands on related to transgender experiences and issues. As I read, I kept stumbling upon past instances of anti-trans discrimination from within the lesbian community. These included derogatory anti-trans remarks by influential lesbian-feminist thinkers such as Mary Daly, Andrea Dworkin, and of course Janice Raymond, who wrote the infamous anti-trans diatribe The Transsexual Empire:
Double Standard of Masculinity in Gender Role Socialization Masculinity is a topic that has been debated in our society extensively, through research as well as in informal settings.
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Many wonder what it means to be masculine, and if we can really assign Argumentative essay on double standards definition to such a subjective term. This self-construction would be the ideal in our society, but unfortunately, it represents a false belief.
Masculinity has certain characteristics assigned to it by our culture. In this paper I will explore the many facets of masculinity and demonstrate how certain beliefs pertaining to it are perpetuated in our society.
These characteristics range from not crying when they get hurt to being and playing violently. The socialization of masculinity in our society begins as early as the first stages of infancy.
Later in this paper the question of whether there are genetic factors will be discussed. However, to further my argument at this point, I will discuss masculinity as it is socially defined. Children internalize parental messages regarding gender at an early age, with awareness of adult sex role differences being found in two-year-old children.
One study found that children at two and a half years of age use gender stereotypes in negotiating their world and are likely to generalize gender stereotypes to a variety of activities, objects, and occupations Witt This legitimization teaches males that boys and men are not allowed to cry.
Other factors help to perpetuate certain standards expected of men and boys Stearns Katz explains that advertising imagery equates masculinity with violence.
For boys this means aggression is instrumental in that it enables them to establish their masculinity Katz Lee Bowker researched the influence advertisements have on youth. He asserts that toy advertisements featuring only boys depict aggressive behavior. Strangely, the aggressive behavior generally results in positive consequences more often than negative.
Bowker also looked at commercials with boys that contain references to domination. The results of all the commercials indicate that There was no cross? Interestingly, not one single-sex commercial featuring girls shows any act of aggression Bowker Another example of how this can be reinforced even by women who may or may not be trying to promulgate such a belief is with an experience I had growing up: When I would get a cut or a bruise, I would muster up all the strength I had to not cry.
On one occasion I had a severe cut in my knee that required several stitches. When I took a look at the wound after rolling up my pant leg, my first inclination was to break out crying. However, at that moment my teacher told me what a brave boy I was and how amazed she was that I was not crying.
She probably did not realize that she was sending a message to me that if I cried I would not be tough enough, and therefore I would not become a real man. This initial reinforcer is a major impetus for boys wanting to learn athletics Thompson It may not be just that dad watches athletics on TV, but also in speaking with his son, he may encourage him to develop his athletic prowess.
All of these factors serve as primary socializers in instilling within boys the desire to excel physically. Most of what a young boy learns about what it means to be masculine is presented to him at such an early stage that he accepts it as an inevitable truth.
William Betcher reports that some societies take this concept to an extreme. As boys grow older, their bodies develop and they enter junior high and high school. At this point they begin to really understand that physical prowess and largess are the ideal.
To see how this is done, we can simply look at the emphasis given to athletics versus the emphasis given to academics in public schools.
Understandably, how schools emphasize athletics over academics is going to have some influence over the way young men think and visualize the importance of physical prowess, but the true legitimator is how athletes are seen by the student?
The implication in this phrase is that men should be immune to pain and not show any emotion. To show emotion would be a sign of weakness and society would view them as abnormal or inferior Pollack I have covered the socialization process showing how physical prowess is objectified and legitimated in males.
This process, however, does not end in high school.Essay: Double Standard of Masculinity in Gender Role Socialization Masculinity is a topic that has been debated in our society extensively, through research as well as in informal settings. Many wonder what it means to be masculine, and if we can really assign a definition to such a subjective term.
In our age of progressiveness and modernity the pinnacle of open mindedness is seen as a fancy piece of paper saying one is educated. A degree has become just a continuation of high school, and like high school is just as useless in giving anyone knowledge in the real world.
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Double Take “Double Take” In Melissa Lafsy’s “Double Take”, the author takes a trip to China to get an adventure of a different culture, but is left perplexed from being reminded of the nuisances she had left behind in the United States.
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