Abstract An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change.
A child may learn to swear, smack, smoke, and deem other inappropriate behavior acceptable through poor modeling. Bandura claims that children continually learn desirable and undesirable behavior through observational learning. Observational learning suggests that an individual's environment, cognitionand behavior all incorporate and ultimately determine how the individual functions and models.
This basically occurs when an individual first learns a behavior by observing another individual and that individual serves as a model through whom other individuals learn the behavior, and so on.
Some cultures expect children to actively participate in their communities and are therefore exposed to different trades and roles on a daily basis.
The importance of observational learning lies in helping individuals, especially children, acquire new responses by observing others' behavior.
Observational learning occurs through observing negative and positive behaviors. In this experiment Bandura demonstrates that one group of children placed in an aggressive environment would act the same way, while the control group and the other group of children placed in a passive role model environment hardly shows any type of aggression.
This incorporation into the adult world at an early age allows children to use observational learning skills in multiple spheres of life. This learning through observation requires keen attentive abilities.
Culturally, they learn that their participation and contributions are valued in their communities. This teaches children that it is their duty, as members of the community, to observe others' contributions so they gradually become involved and participate further in the community.
Observers cannot learn unless they pay attention to what's happening around them. This process is influenced by characteristics of the model, such as how much one likes or identifies with the model, and by characteristics of the observer, such as the observer's expectations or level of emotional arousal.
Observers must not only recognize the observed behavior but also remember it at some later time. This process depends on the observer's ability to code or structure the information in an easily remembered form or to mentally or physically rehearse the model's actions.
In many cases the observer possesses the necessary responses. But sometimes, reproducing the model's actions may involve skills the observer has not yet acquired. It is one thing to carefully watch a circus juggler, but it is quite another to go home and repeat those acts.
The observer must have motivation to recreate the observed behavior. Bandura clearly distinguishes between learning and performance. Unless motivated, a person does not produce learned behavior. This motivation can come from external reinforcement, such as the experimenter's promise of reward in some of Bandura's studies, or the bribe of a parent.
Or it can come from vicarious reinforcement, based on the observation that models are rewarded. High-status models can affect performance through motivation.
For example, girls aged 11 to 14 performed better on a motor performance task when they thought it was demonstrated by a high-status cheerleader than by a low-status model.
Observational learning leads to a change in an individual's behavior along three dimensions: An individual thinks about a situation in a different way and may have incentive to react to it.
The change is a result of a person's direct experiences as opposed to being in-born.
For the most part, the change an individual has made is permanent. According to Bandura's social cognitive learning theory, observational learning can affect behavior in many ways, with both positive and negative consequences. It can teach completely new behaviors, for one.
It can also increase or decrease the frequency of behaviors that have previously been learned. Observational learning can even encourage behaviors that were previously forbidden for example, the violent behavior towards the Bobo doll that children imitated in Albert Bandura's study.
Observational learning can also influence behaviors that are similar to, but not identical to, the ones being modeled. For example, seeing a model excel at playing the piano may motivate an observer to play the saxophone.
Age difference[ edit ] Albert Bandura stressed that developing children learn from different social models, meaning that no two children are exposed to exactly the same modeling influence.
From infancy to adolescencethey are exposed to various social models. A study found that a toddlers' previous social familiarity with a model was not always necessary for learning and that they were also able to learn from observing a stranger demonstrating or modeling a new action to another stranger.
However a number of studies now report that infants as young as seven days can imitate simple facial expressions. By the latter half of their first year, 9-month-old babies can imitate actions hours after they first see them.Theory in Biosciences focuses on new concepts in theoretical biology.
It also includes analytical and modelling approaches as well as philosophical and historical issues. Central topics are:Artificial LifeBioinformatics with a. Some of them include behavioral theory, contingency theory, path goal theory and the leader- member exchange theory.
The behavioral approach to leadership suggests that the leader’s behavior, not the leader’s personal characteristics, influence followers and that leaders are taught. For the fun of debunking, duty of skepticism, and love of science. It is difficult to say what truth is, but sometimes it is so easy to recognize a falsehood.
Journal description. Theory in Biosciences, formerly: Biologisches Zentralblatt, focuses on new concepts in theoretical biology.
It is likewise interested in analytical or modelling approaches and. Social and Behavioral Theories 1. Learning Objectives. After reviewing this chapter, readers should be able to: Define what theory is and identify two key types of social and behavioral science theory that are relevant to public health interventions.
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