Cultural competence in healthcare The provision of culturally tailored health care can improve patient outcomes. InCalifornia passed Assembly Bill that requires patient-related continuing medical education courses in California medical school to incorporate cultural and linguistic competence training in order to qualify for certification credits. It is impossible to refer to "a Hispanic-American perspective" or to "a single Latino culture".
Between andhe executed a large survey study regarding national values differences across the worldwide subsidiaries of this multinational corporation: He first focused his research on the 40 largest countries, and then extended it to 50 countries and 3 regions, "at that time probably the largest matched-sample cross-national database available anywhere.
As Hofstede explains on his academic website,  these dimensions regard "four anthropological problem areas that different national societies handle differently: In order to confirm the early results from the IBM study and to extend them to a variety of populations, six subsequent cross-national studies have successfully been conducted between and The combined research established value scores on the four dimensions for a total of 76 countries and regions.
In Michael Harris Bond and colleagues conducted a study among students in 23 countries, using a survey instrument developed with Chinese employees and managers. The results from this study led Hofstede to add a new fifth dimension to his model: In the scores for this dimension have been extended to 93 countries thanks to the research of Michael Minkov who used the recent World Values Survey.
A higher degree of the Index indicates that hierarchy is clearly established and executed in society, without doubt or reason. A lower degree of the Index signifies that people question authority and attempt to distribute power.
These in-groups are laced with undoubted loyalty and support each other when a conflict arises with another in-group. Societies that score a high degree in this index opt for stiff codes of behavior, guidelines, laws, and generally rely on absolute truth, or the belief that one lone truth dictates everything and people know what it is.
A lower degree in this index shows more acceptance of differing thoughts or ideas. Society tends to impose fewer regulations, ambiguity is more accustomed to, and the environment is more free-flowing. In feminine societies, they share modest and caring views equally with men.
In more masculine societies, women are somewhat assertive and competitive, but notably less than men. In other words, they still recognize a gap between male and female values. This dimension is frequently viewed as taboo in highly masculine societies.
A lower degree of this index short-term indicates that traditions are honored and kept, while steadfastness is valued. Societies with a high degree in this index long-term views adaptation and circumstantial, pragmatic problem-solving as a necessity.
A poor country that is short-term oriented usually has little to no economic development, while long-term oriented countries continue to develop to a point. This dimension is essentially a measure of happiness; whether or not simple joys are fulfilled. On the other hand, Anglo and Germanic countries have a lower power distance only 11 for Austria and 18 for Denmark.
Compared to Guatemala where the power distance is very high 95 and Israel where it is very low 13the United States is in the middle. Germany scores a high UAI 65 and Belgium even more 94 compared to Sweden 29 or Denmark 23 despite their geographic proximity. However, few countries have very low UAI.
Masculinity is extremely low in Nordic countries: Norway scores 8 and Sweden only 5. In contrast, Masculinity is very high in Japan 95and in European countries like Hungary, Austria and Switzerland influenced by German culture.
In the Anglo world, masculinity scores are relatively high with 66 for the United Kingdom for example. Latin countries present contrasting scores: However, there are less data about this dimension.
There are even less data about the sixth dimension. For example, low power distance is associated with consultative political practices and income equity, whereas high power distance is correlated with unequal income distribution, as well as bribery and corruption in domestic politics.
Individualism is positively correlated with mobility and national wealth. As a country becomes richer, its culture becomes more individualistic.
Another example of correlation was drawn by the Sigma Two Group  in On average predominantly Catholic countries show very high uncertainty avoidance, relatively high power distance, moderate masculinity and relatively low individualism, whereas predominantly atheist countries have low uncertainty avoidance, very high power distance, moderate masculinity, and very low individualism.
Coelho found inverse correlations between rates of specific kinds of innovation in manufacturing companies and the percentage of large companies per country as well as the employment of a specific kind of manufacturing strategy.
The national culture measure of power distance is positively correlated with the ratio of companies with process innovation only over the companies with any of the three types of innovation considered in the country determinant of correlation: Hence in countries with higher power distance, innovative manufacturing companies are somewhat more bound to resort to process innovations.
The quantification of cultural dimensions enables us to make cross-regional comparisons and form an image of the differences between not just countries but entire regions.
For example, the cultural model of the Mediterranean countries is dominated by high levels of acceptance of inequalities, with uncertainty aversion influencing their choices.
With regard to individualism, Mediterranean countries tend to be characterized by moderate levels of individualistic behavior. The same applies to masculinity.The Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies (JIBCS) publishes original, unpublished manuscripts related to international business, global economics, transnational cultural relations and societal issues as they affect international business.
Manuscripts from a broad range of topics are appropriate for consideration in JIBCS providing the focus of the work is affect on. Published: Wed, 20 Jun In the past decade of increased globalization and diversity, business across borders has increased.
Although cross border business faces a lot of challenges not only from the political and socio economic paradigm but also from culture (Porter, ). MBA , International Business 1 Course Description Examines current patterns of international business and social, economic, political, and cultural systems impacting the.
The theory of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions constitutes a framework revolving around cross-cultural communication, which was devised by Geert Hofstede. The dimensions collectively portray the impact of the culture ingrained in society on the values of the members of that society.
They also describe the relationship between these values and behavior, with the help of a structure based on.
Manning issues and multiculturalism. During the long crisis of the s, shipowners of the traditional maritime nations were changing their operational strategies to more cost-cutting survival strategies. Fig.2 presents a table of Hofstede (), Trompenaars (), and Hofstede and Bond’s () scales, which compare the UK and Japanese in terms of general cultural preferences, helping to explain the reasons behind the actions described in Fig