Structural engineering Structural engineering involves the analysis and design of the built environment buildings, bridges, equipment supports, towers and walls. Those concentrating on buildings are sometimes informally referred to as "building engineers". Structural engineers require expertise in strength of materialsstructural analysisand in predicting structural load such as from weight of the building, occupants and contents, and extreme events such as wind, rain, ice, and seismic design of structures which is referred to as earthquake engineering. Architectural Engineers sometimes incorporate structural as one aspect of their designs; the structural discipline when practiced as a specialty works closely with architects and other engineering specialists.
Bridges in AmsterdamNetherlands The Arkadiko Bridge is one of four Mycenaean corbel arch bridges part of a former network of roads, designed to accommodate chariotsbetween the fort of Tiryns and town of Epidauros in the Peloponnesein southern Greece. Dating to the Greek Bronze Age 13th century BCit is one of the oldest arch bridges still in existence and use.
Several intact arched stone bridges from the Hellenistic era can be found in the Peloponnese. The Romans also used cementwhich reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone. Brick and mortar bridges were built after the Roman era, as the technology for cement was lost then later rediscovered.
In India, the Arthashastra treatise by Kautilya mentions the construction of dams and bridges. During the 18th century there were many innovations in the design of timber bridges by Hans Ulrich GrubenmannJohannes Grubenmannand others.
The first book on bridge engineering Mechanical engineering and building bridges written by Hubert Gautier in A major breakthrough in bridge technology came with the erection of the Iron Bridge in Shropshire, England in It used cast iron for the first time as arches to cross the river Severn.
With the advent of steel, which has a high tensile strength, much larger bridges were built, many using the ideas of Gustave Eiffel. Types of bridges[ edit ] Bridges can be categorized in several different ways. Common categories include the type of structural elements used, by what they carry, whether they are fixed or movable, and by the materials used.
Structure type[ edit ] Bridges may be classified by how the forces of tensioncompressionbendingtorsion and shear are distributed through their structure.
Most bridges will employ all of the principal forces to some degree, but only a few will predominate. The separation of forces may be quite clear. In a suspension or cable-stayed span, the elements in tension are distinct in shape and placement. In other cases the forces may be distributed among a large number of members, as in a truss.
Beam bridge Beam bridges are horizontal beams supported at each end by substructure units and can be either simply supported when the beams only connect across a single span, or continuous when the beams are connected across two or more spans.
When there are multiple spans, the intermediate supports are known as piers. The earliest beam bridges were simple logs that sat across streams and similar simple structures. In modern times, beam bridges can range from small, wooden beams to large, steel boxes.
The vertical force on the bridge becomes a shear and flexural load on the beam which is transferred down its length to the substructures on either side  They are typically made of steel, concrete or wood.
Girder bridges and Plate girder bridgesusually made from steel, are types of Beam bridges. Box girder bridgesmade from steel, concrete, or both are also beam bridges. This truss is a structure of connected elements forming triangular units.Building Bridges, Connecting Jaspers Monday, March 12, Mechanical engineering student Simon Mysliwiec ’14,’15M is working with professor biology professor Lance Evans and mechanical engineering professor Zahra Shahbazi during the summer to determine the mechanical properties of 30 different tree species.
Mechanical Engineering Questions and Answers. To ask an engineering question please visit our forum site at Eng-Tips. Browse our archive of questions and answers below or to access our old forum database of over questions and answers please visit the . Integral bridges in simple words, can be defined as bridges without joints.
Integral bridges are characterized by monolithic connection between the deck and the substructure (piers and abutments).
They span from one abutment, over intermediate support to . What kinds of engineers build bridges? mechanical engineer may seek to enhance current products so that a higher level of efficiency is achieved resulting in household products becoming more affordable, such as microwave ovens.
Steps to building a bridge 1. Using the topographic map, look at the terrain of the location and decide which. With this kit of modular building pieces, you can learn the basics of structural engineering by conducting a series of 20 model-building experiments.
Each model demonstrates a basic principle of mechanical physics or structural engineering in a hands-on way.4/4(27). Bridge Construction Planning.
Bridge construction tends to involve huge projects that encompass the utilization of skills related to several engineering disciplines including geology, civil, electrical, mechanical, and computer sciences.